Answered By: Sharon Nangle
Last Updated: Apr 13, 2016     Views: 215

You will be required to reference the sources you use for most assignments.  Schools within the University of St Andrews use a range of different referencing styles, so before you start referencing, check what style you need to use.

Within the University the following styles are used:

APA - American Psychological Association 


There are two versions of the Chicago Style - (1)Notes and Bibliography, and (2) Author-Date.  The most recent edition of the Chicago Style was released in 2010, and is the 16th edition. 

  • The Library has print copies of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.  Chapter 15 covers the Notes and Bibliography style; chapter 16 covers the Author-Date style;
  • We have online access to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition.  You can also access a Chicago Style Citation Quick Guide through the Tools menu on the online version of the style guide.


There are many variations of the Harvard Style in use, check with your School or in your School Handbook to see if a specific variation is used.  

This guide to Harvard style from Anglia Ruskin University is based on BS ISO 690:2012 - you can use it as an interactive guide, or download as a PDF.

MHRA - Modern Humanities Research Association

The MHRA makes the most recent edition (3rd) of the MHRA Style Guide available via their website.  Chapter 10 deals with the format for footnotes or endnotes, and chapter 11 with the formatting of references.

MLA - Modern Language Association 

The most recent edition of the MLA Style manual is the third edition, published in 2008.  You'll also find information in the MLA Handbook, 7th edition.



Turabian is a variation of the Chicago Styles - adapted for the use of students by Kate L. Turabian.  Like Chicago, there are two variations of the style - the Notes-Bibliography style, or the Parenthetical Citation-Reference List style.


Vancouver is a numerical referencing style - there are no in-text citations or footnotes, instead each work you refer to has a number refering to the reference list.  There are many variations of the Vancouver style, so check with your school or your school handbook to see if you need to use a particular variation.

Referencing Software

There are a variety of online resources which can help with referencing, for whatever style you need to use.  The Library runs classes showing how to use Endnote and Mendeley - contact us if you'd like to know more. Our Referencing Software Guide is a great place to start. 

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